CIRAD - Actualités / News - adresse site = - Langue = eng-GB eng-GB Lutte contre les maladies transmises par les moustiques : découverte d’un nouvel élément génétique chez la bactérie Wolbachia <p> Les chercheurs de l’Inra, du Cirad, du CEA et des Universités de Montpellier, Chicago et Vanderbilt aux Etats-Unis ont développé une méthode inédite d’analyse du génome de la bactérie Wolbachia. Cette bactérie endosymbiotique* infectant plus de 70 % des insectes, est capable d’influencer la transmission par ces derniers d’agents pathogènes comme le virus de la Dengue ou Zika. A partir du séquençage et de l’étude de l’ensemble de l’ADN présent dans les ovaires de moustiques <em>Culex pipiens,</em> ils ont identifié pour la première fois un nouvel élément génétique mobile de type plasmide dans cette bactérie. La connaissance de ce plasmide ouvre des voies de recherche pour mieux comprendre l’interaction de la bactérie Wolbachia avec son moustique hôte et son rôle dans la transmission des agents pathogènes. Ces travaux, publiés dans <em>Nature Communications,</em> ouvrent ainsi des perspectives dans la lutte biologique contre les agents pathogènes transmis par les insectes, véritable enjeu de santé publique. </p> Fri, 22 Mar 2019 14:03:27 +0100 Plinio Sist: “Urgent action is needed to restore tropical forest ecosystems at the territorial level” <p> Deforestation is not a recent phenomenon. But deforestation on a massive scale is. Yet this has been a critical environmental and social problem for several decades now. The main strategies in place today to tackle this problem focus on the conservation of existing forests as well as on the restoration of degraded forests. An interview with Plinio Sist, Director of the Forests and Societies research unit, on the occasion of the International Day of Forests on 21 March. </p> Thu, 21 Mar 2019 09:22:38 +0100 Deforestation in Madagascar: balancing development and biodiversity conservation <p> The President of the Republic of Madagascar, Andry Rajoelina, unveiled an ambitious reforestation plan at the One Planet Summit on 14 March in Nairobi. This announcement followed on from the <a href="/en/news/all-news-items/press-releases/2018/deforestation-in-madagascar" target="_self" rel="self" rev="width:100_height:100">recent findings</a> published by CIRAD in <a href="*" target="_self" rel="self" rev="width:100_height:100"><em>Biological Conservation</em> </a> and cited in a communication by the President of Madagascar to his Council of Ministers on 27 February this year. The island has lost 44 % of its natural forests since the 1950s and the rate of deforestation is increasing. Some 90 % of its species are endemic, and the island’s unique biodiversity is thus endangered. The challenge for the island is balancing the protection of its natural heritage with the fight against poverty. This is a huge task that calls for action on several fronts. Research conducted by CIRAD and its partners is accompanying the country in this endeavour through several projects. A look at the situation on the occasion of the International Day of Forests on 21 March. </p> Wed, 20 Mar 2019 17:08:41 +0100 Environment and sustainable development: IRD, CIRAD and UNEP sign a cooperation framework agreement <p> IRD, CIRAD and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) have just signed a framework agreement for scientific cooperation during the One Planet Summit held in Nairobi (Kenya) on 14 March 2019. This multidisciplinary agreement concerns the major challenges of the global environment and sustainable development. </p> Mon, 18 Mar 2019 17:30:53 +0100 One Planet Summit: CIRAD mobilised for the climate and environment in Africa <p> CIRAD is participating in the third edition of the One Planet Summit on 14 March 2019 in Nairobi, Kenya. This is the opportunity for CIRAD, which is very committed to the climate and environment in Africa, to sign two framework agreements for scientific cooperation: the first focuses on the environment with IRD and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the second on training young researchers with the Kenyan Ministry of Education. Michel Eddi, President Managing Director of CIRAD, will accompany the French President, Emmanuel Macron, who is the initiative of the One Planet Summits. </p> Wed, 13 Mar 2019 10:05:29 +0100 Arbres, arbustes et lianes d'Afrique de l'Ouest <p> Updated edition of the field handbook <em>Arbres, arbustes et lianes d'Afrique de l'Ouest</em> to aid identification of the bushy and forest species of West Africa, published by Editions Quae. </p> Fri, 08 Mar 2019 09:56:37 +0100 CIRAD is working for gender equality <p> As the European Commission marks 20 years of policies devoted to supporting gender equality in research and innovation, CIRAD is beginning its coordination of a European project on gender in the agricultural and life sciences: Gender-SMART, which associates seven organizations and two specialist technical partners. A video presenting the project has been released to mark International Women's Day. </p> Thu, 07 Mar 2019 17:07:20 +0100 Tackling the employment challenge in the Sahel by investing in food value chains <p> Population pressure, climate change and a rise in conflicts raise huge issues for countries in the Sahel. One of the main challenges is training and providing jobs for young people. The food economy, which already employs two people in three, is one of the most promising sectors. Agricultural productivity, value chain structuring and career attractiveness are vital issues, according to Mali's Minister of Agriculture, who spoke at a conference, &quot;Sahel, terre de défis et d’opportunités agricoles&quot; (Sahel, land of challenges and opportunities for agriculture), organized by CIRAD and the Agence française de développement (AFD) on 27 February, during the Paris International Agricultural Show. </p> Thu, 07 Mar 2019 11:35:21 +0100 Patrick Caron: "MAK’IT is an intellectual booster for accelerating transitions towards the sustainable development goals" <p> Montpellier Advanced Knowledge Institute on Transitions (MAK’IT), which is supported by CIRAD, is one of the key projects at Montpellier University of Excellence<em> </em> (MUSE). By bringing a dozen or so experts together for several months to look at a specific issue, MAK’IT is intended to be a collective intelligence forum, to accelerate transitions in the fields of health, the environment, agriculture and food. This advanced knowledge institute is being officially launched in Montpellier on 7 March 2019. The results obtained by the first scientific pilot group, which worked on the circularity of food systems, will be presented at the event. Patrick Caron, a geographer with CIRAD and Head of International Relations at MUSE who founded MAK'IT, tells us more. </p> Wed, 06 Mar 2019 11:12:47 +0100 Making international standards more credible: the case of the FSC forest management label <p> The global organisation Forest Stewardship Council (FSC International) regulates the FSC forest management label, which is translated into national standards according to the context in each country. The initial version of the Principles and Criteria for this label, published in 1994, was revised and, in 2015, new Principles and Criteria were published, along with a list of generic indicators. This new version should be used to update national standards. This issue of Perspective proposes recommendations for drafting these new national standards and reviewing certain audit procedures. The study’s recommendations are illustrated with specific cases in Brazil, Indonesia and the countries of the Congo Basin. Indicators for the new national standards need to minimise any scope for interpretation during certification audits. Audits should no longer accept recurrence of the same non-conformities, even when these issues are minor. With Gabon announcing in September 2018 the obligation to obtain FSC certification in order to allocate or maintain forest concessions from 2020 onwards, it is important to reduce existing weaknesses in this certification. </p> Tue, 05 Mar 2019 14:45:35 +0100 Environmental policies and incentives: payments may prove counter-productive <p> Why are some conservation and development policies so ineffective? Driss Ezzine de Blas, a socioeconomist with CIRAD, used social psychology and behavioural economics to look into this. He was able to understand what structures the motivations of beneficiaries of payments for environmental services (PES) - an incentive to preserve the environment - and identify some rules of good practice to make conservation and development policies more effective. A special issue of the journal <em>Ecological Economics</em> published in February contains a compilation of his work and that of other international experts. It marks CIRAD as a leading player on this issue. </p> Mon, 04 Mar 2019 15:07:40 +0100 CIRAD and the NGO APDRA-Pisciculture Paysanne formalise their partnership <p class="MsoNormal"> Putting fish farmers at the heart of the co-construction of innovative solutions is the shared goal of CIRAD and the NGO APDRA-Pisciculture Paysanne. On 2 March 2019, at the Paris International Agricultural Show, CIRAD and APDRA signed a framework agreement setting out the terms of their common approach to applied research for small-scale fish farming. </p> Sat, 02 Mar 2019 15:00:59 +0100 Boosting micronutrients in food through agroecology to address malnutrition in the Sahel <p> Senegal and Ethiopia are implementing an ambitious project aimed at increasing the presence of micronutrients in basic foodstuffs, through the use of agro-ecological practices in the field. The idea is to thereby contribute to addressing problems of malnutrition that affect mothers and their children. This experiment, coordinated by CIRAD, will be conducted until 2021 and could eventually benefit other countries in the Sahel. </p> Wed, 27 Feb 2019 10:00:14 +0100 Annick Girardin, ministre française des Outre-mer reçue au Cirad <p> Après une première visite du Cirad à Montpellier en 2015 et à la Réunion en 2017, Annick Girardin, ministre des Outre-mer, est revenue à Montpellier pour une rencontre avec le Cirad et ses partenaires locaux. Objectif : impliquer la recherche dans la construction de la trajectoire 5.0 qu’elle a annoncée en début d’année et dans les nouvelles plateformes partenariales universitaires et de recherche, pour chaque zone outre-mer. Cette fois encore, elle a souligné le rôle majeur de la recherche dans le développement et l’attractivité de ces régions françaises dans le monde. </p> Tue, 26 Feb 2019 14:34:12 +0100 ANSES and CIRAD strengthen their scientific cooperation dedicated to "One Health" <p> At the Paris International Agricultural Show today, Roger Genet, Director General of ANSES, and Michel Eddi, President Managing Director of CIRAD, signed a five-year framework partnership agreement. The two organisations are thus strengthening their numerous existing collaborations to improve knowledge of pathogens and pests and their vectors in the fields of animal health, plant health and food. </p> Tue, 26 Feb 2019 12:20:55 +0100 Sylvie Lewicki: “To sustainably develop the Sahel, the constraints must be turned into opportunities” <p> Faced with climate change, in a context of population growth that remains high, the countries of the Sahel are increasingly exposed to socio-economic and environmental constraints. An interview with Sylvie Lewicki, CIRAD’s Regional Director for West Africa - Dry Zone, looking at these issues and CIRAD’s engagement with these countries. </p> Wed, 20 Feb 2019 19:53:26 +0100 Towards an application to predict mango production in the Sahel <p> <strong>Drones and image recognition can be used to estimate yields from mango orchards in the Sahel. These predictions are invaluable to producers, but also to several other actors in the sector. The project, conducted by a PhD student at CIRAD, could well become a mobile application for farmers.</strong> </p> Wed, 20 Feb 2019 14:26:35 +0100 Crops in the Sahel: agroforestry to the rescue <p> <strong>Video. </strong> In the Sahel, it only rains for three months each year. During this short period, rural populations grow their food for the year. Given this insecurity, agroforestry’s multiple advantages are a blessing: adaptation to climate change, improving soil fertility and even crop protection against pests, according to recent scientific findings. A report on <em>Faidherbia albida, </em> an emblematic tree in central Senegal. </p> Tue, 19 Feb 2019 18:40:17 +0100 One Health | 30 partners launch a health network to secure poultry production in South Asia <p> Thirty partners from nine countries, including CIRAD, have joined forces within the framework of an international network for veterinary and public health geared to poultry in South and South East Asia. The “One Health Poultry Hub” network is coordinated by the Royal Veterinary College and was launched at the end of January. One of the network’s first meetings was held in Vietnam on 18 February. </p> Mon, 18 Feb 2019 18:04:31 +0100 SIA 2019 Conference | Sahel, a land of agricultural opportunities and challenges <p> The Sahel, one of the poorest regions in the world, is vulnerable to crises and insecurity. In this zone of transition between the desert and humid tropical Africa, the food economy employs two thirds of the population. How can Sahelian agriculture innovate and develop to meet the vital needs of a growing population in the face of climatic hazards? CIRAD and AFD invite you to discuss these issues on Wednesday 27 February at the International Agricultural Show in Paris. </p> Fri, 15 Feb 2019 17:22:40 +0100