CIRAD - Actualités / News - adresse site = - Langue = eng-GB eng-GB Transferts sol-plantes des éléments traces : un test biologique normalisé <p> Le RHIZOtest vient d’obtenir une normalisation ISO. Développé par le Cirad et l’Inra, ce biotest mesure le transfert des éléments traces du sol à la plante afin d’en évaluer le risque écotoxicologique. Cette norme valide à la fois l’outil et la méthodologie, et devrait ouvrir la voie à de multiples applications. </p> Tue, 27 Jan 2015 16:12:49 +0100 Sugarcane bioproducts <p> </p> <p class="MsoNormal"> From sugar to bioenergies through building insulation, bioplastics and medicines, sugarcane has a range of advantages, with high productivity combined with its wide range of varieties and potential that has yet to be exploited. </p> Tue, 20 Jan 2015 14:53:37 +0100 AFD and CIRAD are partners in research and innovation in favour of farming systems in the South <p> The Agence Française de Développement (AFD), represented by its CEO, Anne Paugam, and the French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD), represented by its President Managing Director, Michel Eddi, in the presence of Annick Girardin, Secretary of State for Development and French-Speaking Countries, signed a general partnership agreement in Paris on 14 January that is intended to foster the generation of knowledhge and promotion of innovations in favour of agricultural supply chains and rural areas in developing southern countries. </p> Thu, 15 Jan 2015 12:28:30 +0100 Pox and peste des petits ruminants: a bivalent vaccine capable of overcoming acquired immunity <p> In africa, the Middle East and Asia, pox and peste des petits ruminants cause heavy losses on goat and sheep farms. A bivalent vaccine effective against both pox and PPR was developed recently by a team from CIRAD. However, as is the case with other vaccine vectors, there were fears that its efficacy might be limited by pre-immunity, or immunity already acquired against one of the two diseases in regions where they are endemic. To test this hypothesis, virologists from CIRAD and their partners conducted a series of experiments on goats already immunized against one virus or the other and then vaccinated. Their results showed that while the protection provided by the vaccine against pox did not vary in animals pre-immunized against PPR, that against PPR fell significantly if animals were pre-immunized against pox. In view of these results, the CIRAD virologists are now looking to develop new generations of vaccines and draft strategies to overcome the issue of pre-immunity. </p> Thu, 15 Jan 2015 12:15:02 +0100 Sociologie des grandes cultures - Au cœur du modèle industriel agricole <p> Arable crops have for many years constituted a laboratory for preparing an industrial model in agriculture. From a sociology perspective, this work studies the contemporary transformations of arable crops and shows how they still constitute, in a context of globalisation of agricultural markets, a hotbed of heterogeneous innovations, as productive as they are marketable or political, and also the preferred target of criticism of high-intensity agriculture. Arable crops, as a practice and as political topic, thus constitute a driving force for the current transformations in agriculture. </p> Wed, 14 Jan 2015 17:37:23 +0100 Tribute to Charlie Hebdo: Michel Eddi stresses CIRAD's commitment to democratic values and international solidarity <p> A call for collective action in the face of brutality and in support of democratic values and international solidarity. This was the message delivered by Michel Eddi, CIRAD President Managing Director, to mark the day of national mourning that followed the attack on the offices of <em>Charlie Hebdo</em> in Paris. His message to CIRAD's staff follows. </p> Fri, 09 Jan 2015 17:24:37 +0100 Fruits Vol. 69, No. 6 <p> A new issue of the journal <em>Fruits,</em> published by EDP Sciences and CIRAD. </p> Wed, 07 Jan 2015 11:00:45 +0100 Urban farming in Benin: the risks have been assessed for the first time <p class="MsoNormal"> With the growing demand for market garden products in the towns of sub-Saharan Africa, urban farmers are tending to intensify production, which has increased the environmental and health risks. This was confirmed by a study of tomato production in urban areas of Benin, by researchers from CIRAD and their partners in the country.<br />The study was the first quantified assessment of the performance of this type of production system and the associated environmental risks. The researchers gathered information on the inputs used in farming systems ― fertilizers, pesticides, water, energy ― and their outputs ― yields and all the various flows into the environment. The results showed that yields were very low, and also highly variable. Pesticide use was also seen to be highly variable, and above all excessive, as were nutrient applications, whether nitrogen or phosphorus. Over and above these results, the study served to validate a method for collecting reliable, representative inventory data, which could be used as the basis for comprehensive environmental assessments of market gardening systems in Africa. </p> Tue, 06 Jan 2015 14:34:45 +0100 Microorganisms and Fermentation of Traditional Foods <p> The first volume in a series covering the latest information in microbiology, biotechnology, and food safety aspects. </p> Mon, 05 Jan 2015 11:45:36 +0100 Animal trypanosomiasis: more effective and less costly tsetse fly control methods <p class="MsoNormal"> In Senegal, the government has launched a vast campaign to control animal trypanosomiasis, based on eradicating the tsetse flies that transmit this formidable disease. To target control operations better, researchers from CIRAD and their partners have been using species distribution models that can characterize very precisely the habitat of a species and predict its preferred sites, using environmental data. The results are a more effective control campaign and substantially reduced costs. </p> Fri, 19 Dec 2014 13:54:44 +0100 CIRAD wishes you a Happy New Year 2015 <p> In response to climate change, working together for tomorrow's agriculture. </p> Fri, 19 Dec 2014 13:24:20 +0100 ACP countries-CIRAD: a general agreement to consolidate collaboration <p> Following a fruitful partnership on the sugarcane supply chain, a general agreement was signed recently between CIRAD and the secretariat of the ACP (Africa, Caribbean and Pacific) countries. The agreement broadens the scope of collaboration between the research centre and the countries concerned. </p> Thu, 18 Dec 2014 16:39:51 +0100 The Ivorian authorities have set up a food safety agency <p> During a seminar entitled &quot;<em>Les Ivoiriens sont-ils en danger à travers ce qu’ils consomment ?</em> &quot; on 8 and 9 December in Abidjan, the Ivorian government announced the creation of a national food safety agency and the funding of equipment for the official control laboratories to be set up. </p> Thu, 18 Dec 2014 16:24:42 +0100 Family farming: what next after 2014? <p> Family farming has been the priority topic for debate, scientific communication and action at CIRAD throughout 2014. These operations marked the International Year of Family Farming (UN). What can we draw from them? And what are they likely to lead on to? A look back at twelve months of debate, reflection and inventories of the topic. </p> Thu, 18 Dec 2014 15:52:15 +0100 Bois et Forêt des Tropiques No. 320 <p> This special issue of <em>Bois et Forêts des Tropiques</em> presents results obtained through research operations conducted within the &quot;Forests and Biodiversity in Madagascar&quot; research and training platform in partnership. Most of the work behind these results was done by multi-institutional teams of researchers supervising students (Masters or PhD). This is proof of the platform's triple aim: to conduct quality research, in partnership, that supports the training of the next generation of researchers. </p> Thu, 11 Dec 2014 16:42:52 +0100 The genome of African yams includes four badnavirus elements <p> CIRAD and INRA, in partnership with the NRI and the IITA, recently revealed the presence of badnavirus viral elements within the genome of African yams. This is a first for this tuber, which is widely grown in West Africa. Badnaviruses affect many tropical plants, causing sometimes serious diseases. The question now is whether, as in banana, some of the endogenous elements found in yams could cause spontaneous infection. </p> Thu, 11 Dec 2014 16:29:28 +0100 H2020: the EU is funding the ProIntensAfrica partnership project <p> CIRAD and its partners were recently granted two years of EU funding to look into establishing a long-term joint research programme between Europe and Africa. The study, dubbed ProIntensAfrica, will centre on improving the sustainability of African agriculture, food and nutritional security, and incomes among African farmers. It will be based on an exploration of the various ways of intensifying local agrifood systems sustainably. </p> Thu, 11 Dec 2014 15:39:17 +0100 Declining marine resources: a study in Sumatra has moved the goalposts <p> In the waters of Lake Singkarak, in Sumatra, fish are becoming increasingly scarce and fishing, an essential activity for local people, has seen catches shrink. While everyone is agreed on the decline, different reasons are quoted. Of those reasons, scientists favour over-fishing and illegal practices such as using explosives and electric shocks or a general deterioration in the quality of the water in the lake. The fishermen put the decline down to the building of a hydroelectric dam, land degradation and pollution. </p> <p> A multi-disciplinary study from 2009 to 2013 by researchers from CIRAD and their Thai and Indonesian partners revealed the diversity of viewpoints and that of types of households in line with their income and fishing strategy. The study also showed how, from an institutional point of view, the lake and its resources are seen as open-access, unregulated commons. </p> <p class="MsoNormal"> The results have been presented to the provincial authorities, village communities and fishermen's representatives. They have served to change the ideas held by the various groups. The fishermen have recognized that some of them are over-fishing in relation to the resources available. The traditional communities agree that the existing institutions need to be revised so as to make better use of the lake's resources. The provincial authorities, for their part, have committed to negotiating with fishermen's representatives with a view to drafting new fishing regulations and fighting extreme practices. </p> Fri, 05 Dec 2014 11:59:16 +0100 Les cultures fourragères <p> A book on tropical fodder crops. These crops, which serve to feed livestock, are vitally important for sustainable development in warm regions. </p> Thu, 04 Dec 2014 17:28:38 +0100 Les agricultures familiales du monde: définitions, contributions et politiques publiques <p> A book on the concept of family farming and its relevance compared to other types of farming. A revised version of a report published under the same title by CIRAD to mark the International Year of Family Farming (2014). </p> Mon, 01 Dec 2014 14:26:28 +0100