CIRAD - Actualités / News - adresse site = - Langue = eng-GB eng-GB 4 per 1000 | Soils for food security and climate <p> VIDEO. Human activities release enormous quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. This intensifies the greenhouse effect and accelerates climate change. The world soil contains 2 to 3 times more carbon than the atmosphere. Increasing this storage of carbon by 4 parts for 1000 in the top 30 or 40cm of the soil could stop the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. This is the proposal of the &quot;4 parts for 1000, soils for food security and climate&quot;. </p> Fri, 27 Nov 2015 12:47:41 +0100 Central African forests: large trees are best at storing carbon <p> </p> <p> In Central Africa, large trees and a few hyperdominant species play a prominent role in carbon storage and forest structure. Scientists show in particular that it is possible to establish the carbon balance of the entire forest stand by measuring just 5% of its individuals, with a margin of error of less than 15%. Furthermore, the study reveals that the hyperdominance of the species of Central Africa, contrary to what is observed in the Amazon, is due to the abundance of these species, not to their size. These findings, obtained by means of a vast survey by CIRAD scientists working with many other researchers from both North and South, fill the gaps in our knowledge of these forests, which are a major issue for the countries in the region. In more concrete terms, they have given rise to new methods for estimating carbon stocks that are both simple and economical. </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Wed, 25 Nov 2015 16:17:33 +0100 60 Research Success Stories for a Sustainable Planet <p> To mark COP21, the 28 organizations belonging to AllEnvi have published a compilation of 60 research success stories concerning climate change, the consequences of disruption, and mitigation and adaptation solutions. The book bears witness to the extraordinary commitment of French researchers to addressing climate disruption issues. </p> Tue, 24 Nov 2015 16:05:24 +0100 Bois et Forêts des Tropiques No. 324 <p> A new issue of the journal <em>Bois et forêts des Tropiques,</em> published by CIRAD, including an editorial on scientific integrity. All items are in free access on <a href="" target="_self" rel="self" rev="width:100_height:100">the website of the magazine.</a> </p> Tue, 17 Nov 2015 17:29:20 +0100 Bluetongue and African horse sickness in Senegal: new prospects for better controlling the vectors <p> In Senegal, midges of the genus <em>Culicoides </em> transmit bluetongue and African horse sickness, two very serious viral diseases. However, little is known about these insects and their behaviour, despite the fact that such information is vital in controlling vectors and preventing disease transmission. Through a series of taxonomic and bio-ecological studies, a team from CIRAD and ISRA was able to identifying the species involved, their habitats and their activities. These results, which are vitally important to our knowledge of the bio-ecology of these species, will serve to develop prevention and vector control methods more suitable for local <em>Culicoides </em> populations. </p> Tue, 17 Nov 2015 15:12:00 +0100 Optimising tsetse fly eradication using satellite imagery and genetics <p> Isolated populations of tsetse flies constitute the best targets for eradication campaigns, but they are difficult to detect. By combining analysis of satellite images and genetics, researchers at CIRAD and their partners have developed a methodology for identifying these populations at the continental level. This innovative approach, the result of eight years of work, could be applied to the targeting of other vectors of disease, as well as to the protection of endangered species. </p> Tue, 10 Nov 2015 16:10:20 +0100 The English version of the book Changement climatique et agricultures du monde is now out <p> The book, <em>Changement climatique et agricultures du monde</em> , written by CIRAD researchers ahead of the COP 21, is now available in English under the title <em>Climate Change and Agriculture Worldwide</em> . It covers the issues of concern for farming and farmers in southern countries in the wake of climate change. There is much uncertainty and also many questions, but there are some solutions, as diverse as new farming practices, agricultural waste recycling, diagnosis of emerging diseases and payments for ecosystem services. These are innovative prospects for the farming systems of the future, supplemented by a critical look at alll the major &quot;manoeuvres&quot; under way and what this means for research. </p> Tue, 10 Nov 2015 15:27:23 +0100 Find CIRAD during COP21 <p> An unprecedented event both in France and at the global level, the 2015 Paris Climate Conference, or COP21, will begin on 30 November 2015 in Le Bourget. CIRAD will be mobilising on this occasion, along with many others in the international research community. CIRAD’s representatives, both researchers and administrators, will be present in Paris and Le Bourget. Their goals: promoting agricultural research in the context of climate change and working together around flagship initiatives conducted in partnership with the countries of the South. </p> Tue, 10 Nov 2015 12:08:20 +0100 The English version of CIRAD's 2014 Annual report is now out <p> The English version of CIRAD's 2014 Annual report is now out. The CIRAD Annual report includes its institutional highlights and a selection of research results published during the year. It offers in 2014 a FOCUS on Family Farming. The report also contains indicators, an organizational chart, maps and addresses for CIRAD facilities worldwide. </p> Fri, 06 Nov 2015 13:08:14 +0100 Sub-Saharan Africa | Optimizing agricultural waste recycling means integrating crop and livestock farming <p> In the farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa, there is strong competition between crop and livestock farmers to use the waste produced on their farms, and performance varies substantially from one producer to another. Teams from CIRAD have conducted a series of studies with a view to understanding and improving such systems and ensuring optimum recycling of biomass for the benefit of both crops and livestock. They have demonstrated the merits of integrating crop and livestock farming both on a farm scale and between types of farms, since this ensures more efficient biomass recycling and limits nutrient losses. Their conclusions stress the need to organize negotiations between producers to ensure that nobody feels wronged and that individual practices change without triggering conflict </p> Fri, 06 Nov 2015 12:46:14 +0100 With ImpresS, CIRAD is analysing the impact of its research <p> As part of one of its major projects, CIRAD has developed a method for analysing the impact of its activities. The method, called ImpresS, aims to assess the contribution of research to development, in all its complexity, through case studies of innovations in multi-stakeholder environments. CIRAD took the double option of basing its method on a participatory approach and using its analyses to shed light on two topics not previously studied in detail: stakeholder capacity building and public policy. The first results of 13 case studies are available on line on a website, <a href="" target="_self" rel="self" rev="width:100_height:100"></a> </p> Mon, 02 Nov 2015 15:00:47 +0100 Fruits Vol. 70, No 5 <p> A new issue of the journal <em>Fruits,</em> published by EDP Sciences and CIRAD. </p> Fri, 23 Oct 2015 17:42:11 +0200 Partnerships | CIRAD has strengthened its presence in southern Africa <p> During a recent trip to southern Africa, CIRAD President Michel Eddi signed four general cooperation agreements involving a regional organization, CCARDESA, and four universities in South Africa and Zimbabwe. CIRAD is keen to strengthen its links with its partners in the region. To this end, the hundred or so researchers it has in the zone will be working with five platforms in partnership. The aim is to foster interactions between those platforms, open them up on a regional level and build new scientific links between Réunion, Madagascar and southern Africa. </p> Fri, 23 Oct 2015 12:25:12 +0200 In Mali, fertilizing cotton crops also benefits the soil and food crops <p> </p> <p> As fallow is abandoned, the cropping systems of West Africa are becoming increasingly fragile. Unless fertilizers are used, yields are likely to fall. In Mali, researchers from CIRAD and the IER have studied grassland cropping systems in which cotton, sorghum and groundnut are grown in succession. They tried to determine to what extent fertilizing cotton may impact on the productivity of other crops and soil fertility. The experiment lasted twenty-five years. The results highlighted the vital role played by cotton, but also raised questions as to the current potential of these types of cropping systems. They showed in particular that carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium stocks did not change significantly between the start of the experiment and the end. This result is all the more relevant in that soils are once again centre-stage, notably as part of the &quot;4 per 1000&quot; research programme launched this year. </p> <p> </p> Wed, 21 Oct 2015 15:53:30 +0200 Aquaculture | CIRAD is now part of the MeDITERA centre of excellence <p> IFREMER, based between the saltwater lakes and the sea at Palavas-les-Flots, southern France, has renovated and extended its MeDITERA marine centre of excellence, which now covers almost 6000 m2. CIRAD has transferred its aquariums to the centre in order to work on tilapia and water recycling by seaweed. The official inauguration, on 13 October, was attended by the regional Prefect, CIRAD's Regional Director, and management staff from IFREMER. </p> Tue, 20 Oct 2015 11:13:10 +0200 How malnutrition can co-exist with high cereal production <p> It is a paradox: in some régions of Africa, cereal production is theoretically sufficient to feed the population, yet children are malnourished and often die from malnutrition. How is this possible? By means of a survey, recounted in a film, researchers from CIRAD have shown that many indicators have to be taken into account in addition to cereal production, when estimating the food and nutritional security of a given population. </p> Fri, 16 Oct 2015 11:30:03 +0200 The welfare of farm animals <p> The INRA-CIRAD Joint Consultative Committee on Ethics in Agricultural Research recently released a statement on animal welfare. The Ethics Committee's study fitted into a clear framework, centring on farm animals, and notably excluding laboratory animals and pets. The statement made by the committee stipulâtes that animal welfare must be both one of the parameters of livestock farming systems and an objective, as well as a major research topic for CIRAD and INRA. </p> Tue, 13 Oct 2015 10:13:48 +0200 Water and climate change: innovate to improve irrigation performance <p> </p> <p class="MsoNormal"> <strong>How can we boost global agricultural production, which consumes vast quantities of water, when droughts will undoubtedly be more common in the coming years as a result of climate change? The participants in an international conference, ICID2015, being held in Montpellier from 11 to 16 October, are attempting to answer this question.</strong> </p> Fri, 09 Oct 2015 16:24:21 +0200 Conseil privé en agriculture - Acteurs, pratiques et marché <p> Private agricultural consultants are becoming unavoidable. Based on surveys, this book analyses the strategies and practices of these private operators in a range of social and geographical contexts. It compares the restructuring of the consulting sector in France with that in other European countries. </p> Mon, 05 Oct 2015 15:38:33 +0200 The role of wild birds in the ecology of avian influenza: ten years of research at CIRAD <p> Right from the start of the avian influenza epidemic, CIRAD teams began working on the surveillance of the H5N1 virus in wild birds, particularly in Africa. Thanks to the fieldwork and also to the theoretical research done by those teams, we now know a little more about this disease, which can be transmitted to humans. Among other things, we know that the viruses are sustained all year round in Africa, we know the main species involved in that persistence and we can assess the epidemiological and ecological contexts in which the disease develops better. This work has paved the way for new control methods and highlights the need for global surveillance. </p> Mon, 05 Oct 2015 15:02:33 +0200