CIRAD - Actualités / News - adresse site = - Langue = eng-GB eng-GB Guide to Terrestrial Animal Health Surveillance <p> A guide for the use of national veterinary services and animal health experts. The <em>Guide to Terrestrial Animal Health Surveillance</em> is intended to help them implement and assess land animal disease surveillance systems in their country. The book was published in English in late 2014, and is <a href="" target="_self" rel="self" rev="width:100_height:100">now available in French.</a> </p> Fri, 05 Feb 2016 11:54:58 +0100 Agriculture et développement durable. Guide pour l'évaluation multicritère <p> Les systèmes de production animale et végétale doivent aujourd’hui proposer de nouveaux modèles productifs pour contribuer au développement durable de la planète. Pédagogique et didactique, ce guide méthodologique permet de réaliser une évaluation multicritères de la durabilité de l’agriculture. Comment choisir la méthode et les outils les mieux adaptés à chaque situation ? Pourquoi et comment développer sa propre méthode d’évaluation ? Comment considérer l’agriculture dans ses différentes dimensions et échelles ? Quels sont les écueils à éviter ? </p> Fri, 05 Feb 2016 11:18:32 +0100 Michel Eddi reappointed CIRAD President Managing Director <p> On Wesdnesday 3 February, the Council of Ministers reappointed Michel Eddi President of the CIRAD Board of Trustees, for a further five years. </p> Wed, 03 Feb 2016 15:24:53 +0100 Cocoa | New genotypes to better control diseases <p> A survey on the banks of the Tanpok and its tributaries, in French Guiana, served to identify four cocoa populations, two of them new. A genetic study placed them in the Guiana group, an original group of particular interest in the fight against pests. The genotypes collected have been added to the cocoa collection held by CIRAD in French Guiana. </p> Wed, 03 Feb 2016 14:04:22 +0100 One Health | First intake for the InterRisk international Masters course <p> The new InterRisk Masters course officially launched in January is an academic course in the management of the risks linked to emerging and endemic diseases using the One Health interdisciplinary approach. The course is coordinated by CIRAD, and leads to two qualifications awarded by Kasetsart University, Thailand, and the University of Toulouse, France. First-year teaching began on 1 February. </p> Wed, 03 Feb 2016 12:32:49 +0100 Dry vegetation encourages locusts to become gregarious <p> Desert locusts, which are usually solitary and inoffensive, can very rapidly become gregarious and form gigantic swarms that devastate vegetation. A study by CIRAD and its partners has shown that the state of the vegetation (dry or green) influences the gregarization of adult individuals. </p> Mon, 01 Feb 2016 14:26:16 +0100 Cultural diversity among farmers has shaped sorghum biological diversity <p> <strong>Researchers from CIRAD and their partners from KALRO have discovered that the social relations between farmers play a central role in the dynamics of the diversity of sorghum grown on the slopes of Mount Kenya. By influencing seed exchanges, social structure shapes local agro-biodiversity. This work has major implications in terms of agricultural genetic resource conservation.</strong> </p> Thu, 28 Jan 2016 18:32:43 +0100 Tree functional traits have consistent effects on competition in all the world's forests <p> Un unprecedented study involving researchers from CIRAD recently demonstrated that wood density, specific leaf area and the maximum height of the trees that make up a forest could be used to predict the intensity of competition between species. This work, published in the journal Nature, helps explain the dynamics at play in forests the world over. </p> Thu, 28 Jan 2016 17:57:59 +0100 Climate | The key points of the Paris agreement for agricultural research in the South <p> An agreement on climate for every single country, in both North and South. As far as CIRAD, and indeed agricultural research for development in general, is concerned, this is the main advance made by the text signed by 195 countries in Paris on 12 December 2015. The agreement paves the way for mitigation and adaptation measures in developing countries. Various programmes, such as the 4 per 1000 programme on carbon sequestration in the soil or others relating to climate-smart agriculture, can easily be included in those measures. </p> Wed, 20 Jan 2016 13:55:45 +0100 A first ERC grant for CIRAD, to revolutionize insect pest control <p> CIRAD was granted its first ERC (European Research Council) grant in mid-December, thanks to the work of Jérémy Bouyer (UMR CMAEE) on insect vector and pest control. We take a look at this prestigious grant of two million euros and the research it recognizes. </p> Wed, 13 Jan 2016 15:35:49 +0100 Agro-ecology | Insect nets are twice as cost effective as insecticides <p class="MsoNormal"> In Benin, market gardeners who grow cabbages are now in a position to make the most of their crop, thanks to an innovative technique developed in partnership with CIRAD. So as not to have to buy and use pesticides, they use insect nets to protect their crops. The economic merits of this technique are now clear: researchers recently demonstrated that using nets is twice as cost effective as using pesticides. It also trebles the nett margins on what is produced. Market gardeners also benefit from more stable production and incomes, over which they have greater control than in systems using insecticides. </p> <p> This physical control, which consists in installing nets over crops, is the fruit of an alarming observation: excessive use of synthetic insecticides on crops results in the appearance of resistance in insects, which in turn reduces the efficacy of those insecticides and prompts market gardeners to use ever greater quantities, which has highly adverse effects on human health. </p> <p> BioNetAgro, the project that initiated this cost:benefit analysis, was funded by USAID and CIRAD and conducted by CIRAD and Michigan State University, in partnership with KARI, Egerton University and ICIPE (Kenya), INRAB, Abomey Calavi University and the NGO APRETECTRA (Benin), and A to Z Textile Mills (Tanzania). </p> Tue, 12 Jan 2016 16:39:55 +0100 Congo Basin: managing forests in line with stakeholders' resquirements <p> Maintaining the natural wealth of forests and enabling people to use their resources fairly... this is the admirable idea behind multiple-use forest management. However, since its inclusion in the legislation of Congo Basin countries in the mid-1990s, this type of management has not been widely applied, if at all. There are several reasons for this: the planned uses do not meet the needs of local communities, there have been numerous disputes, and funding has been insufficient. </p> <p> To remedy this situation, CIRAD researchers and their partners have come up with an approach centring on the practical benefits obtained by the various stakeholders rather than on major global issues such as biodiversity protection or carbon sequestration. It is based on solutions developed jointly by logging firms, the authorities and local people. By virtue of a series of realistic compromises, concessions would no longer solely be devoted to timber production, but would be seen as one of the elements in a vast whole: a sustainable, fair forest landscape. Logging firms could fund local development of activities such as agroforestry or individual enterprise, in return for tax relief. Local communities, the main beneficiaries of those new activities, would in turn be expected to curb their illegal activities. </p> <p> However, if stakeholders are to be convinced to change their behaviour, the State has to introduce financial incentives to foster local socioeconomic development, at the expense of tax revenue paid to the central authorities. </p> Wed, 06 Jan 2016 17:18:42 +0100 CIRAD wishes you a Happy New Year 2016 <p> See you in 2016 for a new annual research topic: &quot;Value chains and sustainable development&quot;. </p> Fri, 18 Dec 2015 12:23:31 +0100 Avian influenza: wild and domestic birds, dangerous liaisons <p> For more than a decade now, CIRAD researchers have been studying the role of wild birds in the ecology of avian influenza transmission. This is vital work, at a time when some thirty cases of avian influenza caused by the H5N1, H5N9 and H5N2 viruses have been detected on farms in southwestern France in recent weeks. </p> Thu, 17 Dec 2015 17:56:48 +0100 Fruits Vol. 71, No. 1 <p> A new issue of the journal <em>Fruits</em> , published by EDP Sciences and CIRAD. </p> Thu, 17 Dec 2015 15:50:02 +0100 Perspective No. 35. Identifying certain animal diseases as "neglected" <p class="MsoNormal"> Unlike emerging diseases (avian influenza, Ebola, etc), some endemic human and zoonotic diseases fail to mobilize policy makers and public and private stakeholders. These diseases affect almost a billion people, particularly in tropical countries. To reverse the trend, the WHO has identified several of them as &quot;neglected&quot;. In this issue of <em>Perspective,</em> CIRAD researchers propose also classing certain strictly animal diseases as &quot;neglected&quot;. While those diseases do not directly affect man, they have a significant social and economic impact on marginalized populations in the world's least favoured countries. In order to determine which of those diseases could be identified as neglected, the researchers suggest various criteria and methods for establishing the priorities. </p> Tue, 15 Dec 2015 16:32:06 +0100 When cities reconnect with agriculture <p> In recent years, cities have been reconnecting with agriculture, securing food supplies and making them more sustainable. While it is North American and European cities that are best known, those in Africa, Latin America and Asia are not far behind. A recent symposium highlighted the most striking examples, which illustrate the various approaches taken when making these transitions. </p> Mon, 14 Dec 2015 12:23:17 +0100 Perspective No.36. Using PES to achieve “zero deforestation” agriculture <p> Strategies to tackle deforestation are evolving. Under pressure from environmental NGOs and consumers, the major food companies are voluntarily committing to apply the “zero deforestation” principle, especially for their production of the key agricultural commodities (palm oil, cocoa, soy, etc.), which are responsible for around 70% of deforestation throughout the world. This concept is nevertheless ambiguous and difficult to implement. </p> <p> Payments for environmental services (PES) can help to achieve these ambitions. PES geared towards individual investment would be proposed to producers to enable them to modify their practices; these would be financed by zero deforestation companies. In addition, collective PES for forest conservation at the local level would be proposed to communities; these would be partly financed by a broad-based, low-level fee. </p> Wed, 09 Dec 2015 18:06:34 +0100 Bois et forêts des tropiques no. 325 <p> A new issue of the journal <em>Bois et forêts des Tropiques,</em> published by CIRAD. All items are in free access on <a href="" target="_self" rel="self" rev="width:100_height:100">the website of the magazine.</a> </p> Wed, 09 Dec 2015 10:55:01 +0100 Climate change: adaptation and mitigation, two complementary strategies <p> Adaptation and mitigation both set out to fight climate change, but by different means: the former tackles the consequences, by reducing social and ecological vulnerability, while the latter addresses the causes, by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. <br /> Several studies have highlighted the possible synergies between these two approaches. However, they are generally considered separately since they operate on different time and geographical scales. Researchers from CIRAD and their partners have shown on the contrary that the two strategies are complementary, and that projects would be well advised to combine the two in order to boost their efficacy.<br />Based in particular on more than 200 climate change project design documents in the fields of agriculture and forestry in tropical regions, they show that almost all projects, whether mitigation or adaptation, may claim a contribution to the other objective. According to them, ignoring one of these approaches may even have adverse effects and lead to conflict. There if no question of forcing people to combine the two approaches in every project and every policy. However, according to the researchers, there is nothing to prevent us attempting to integrate them without disrupting their design or increasing costs. </p> Mon, 07 Dec 2015 14:41:45 +0100