CIRAD - Actualités / News - adresse site = - Langue = eng-GB eng-GB Climate change: impact and adaptation <p> A vast amount of work has been carried out on the impact of or adaptation to climate change by players in Languedoc-Roussillon. While this dossier, compiled and produced by Agropolis International, is far from exhaustive, it does set out to provide readers with an overview of that work, by showcasing the players involved and some concrete examples of their research activities. </p> Wed, 15 Apr 2015 17:33:44 +0200 L. Sedogo and R. Zougmouré: in the Sahel, agriculture and climate change have gone hand in hand for years <p> <strong>VIDEOS.</strong> Severe droughts, climate variability, etc, etc... the Sahel has been suffering the whims of the climate for decades. Farmers have had to adapt by using innovative systems and not just technologies, paving the way for the latest approach: climate-smart agriculture. The climate change factor has also been integrated into agricultural policies, which is vital if those policies are to be effective. Some explanations and concrete examples from Robert Zougmouré, West Africa Regional Coordinator of the CGIAR Programme on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security, and Laurent Sedogo, former Minister of Agriculture and the Environment of Burkina Faso (in French). </p> Tue, 14 Apr 2015 15:28:09 +0200 Burkina Faso: local supply chains are stimulating demand for agrifuels <p class="MsoNormal"> In 2007, Burkina Faso embarked upon production of jatropha oil, a biofuel that can replace diesel in rural areas. This biofuel, which is produced, processed and consumed within the same rural area, fits into the way in which local people live, has stimulated energy demand, and has also changed public opinion. These are the results of a field survey by a team from CIRAD, aimed at understanding how the proximity of supplies influences demand, and how that demand is built and expressed. </p> Tue, 14 Apr 2015 13:16:17 +0200 A new technique for selecting the most durable teaks <p> The fungus resistance of teak from plantations is highly variable. To determine that resistance, researchers from CIRAD and their partners have developed a new technique using near infrared spectroscopy. The technique is both rapid and reliable, and will help ensure more rational logging operations and teak use. </p> Wed, 08 Apr 2015 14:46:52 +0200 K. Cassman and P. Tittonell: agro-ecology, ecological intensification and climate change <p> <strong>VIDEOS.</strong> Agro-ecology and ecological intensification are two relatively similar approaches to agriculture. For Pablo Tittonell, agro-ecology is a scientific discipline, a practice and also the result of a social movement, notably in the South, centring on family farming. It provides the means to move towards climate-smart agriculture. Kenneth Cassman, for his part, pleads for &quot;a new way of thinking&quot;: ecological intensification to double yields and halve the negative impacts on the environment. Eventually, this approach will help limit the extension of cultivated areas and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. </p> Thu, 02 Apr 2015 18:36:01 +0200 RITAs: long-term partnerships to boost transfers in the field of agro-ecology <p> After an very positive initial phase, the RITAs (innovation and agricultural transfer networks) set up in the French overseas regions by the French government are now entering a second development phase centring on agro-ecology. </p> Thu, 26 Mar 2015 15:13:00 +0100 Sugarcane: estimating yields from smallholdings by remote sensing <p> In the smallest sugarcane producing countries, cropping practices are many and varied and there are a multitude of plots. In such conditions, it is difficult to estimate production, even though this is a prerequisite for the sustainability of sugar supply chains. Researchers from CIRAD and their partners compared several methods of estimating production based on the vegetation indices supplied by satellites, and observed that the empirical method was the most accurate. They therefore recommend it for use in the smallholder sector. </p> Mon, 23 Mar 2015 11:49:33 +0100 Territorial management of the environment: putting stakeholders centre-stage <p> How can we design territory-scale organic waste management systems that are acceptable to all the stakeholders, whether producers or consumers of that waste? How can we reconcile the often diverging views those stakeholders have of the environment? What method should be used to asses the impact of such management systems on the environment? To answer these questions, a team from CIRAD demonstrated the necessity of taking account of stakeholders' views and developed a new representation framework based on a conception of the environment that is neither techno- nor ecocentric, but anthropocentric. </p> Mon, 23 Mar 2015 11:38:20 +0100 Climate change: decline in the Amazon carbon sink due to excessive tree mortality <p> The Amazon is losing its capacity to sequester atmospheric carbon. This was revealed by a study published on 19 March in the journal <em>Nature.</em> These results were obtained from an major inventory over thirty years in the tropical forests of South America. The study was the most comprehensive ever conducted of this issue to date. It was led by the University of Leeds and involved around a hundred researchers, including a large number from France (CIRAD, CNRS and INRA), working within Labex CEBA. </p> Thu, 19 Mar 2015 19:49:34 +0100 Tackling climate change through climate-smart agriculture <p> <strong>Climate-Smart Agriculture offers the opportunity to design best options to tackle food security as well as to reach a resilient agriculture that also contributes to mitigating climate change. This is a common conviction shared by the scientific community that convened at the 3<sup>rd</sup> Global Science Conference on Climate-Smart Agriculture, held in Montpellier, France on 16-18 March 2015. Scientists agree there is a need to involve all stakeholders; to connect science and policy; that scientists and farmers should liaise, so that the necessary agricultural transitions shall be implemented to face the challenges in the coming years.</strong> </p> Thu, 19 Mar 2015 15:49:03 +0100 Video interview: what do we mean by "climate-smart agriculture"? <p class="MsoNormal"> On the eve of the 3rd Global Science Conference on Climate-Smart Agriculture, to be held in Montpellier, Emmanuel Torquebiau, ecologist and climate change specialist at CIRAD, sheds light on the climate-smart agriculture concept in a video interview (in French). </p> Thu, 12 Mar 2015 16:02:28 +0100 Filières laitières et développement de l'élevage en Afrique de l'Ouest <p> This book provides a diagnosis of mini-dairies in four West African countries in the light of the installation of large industrial dairies in their capitals. In particular, it analyses the strengths and weaknesses of these entreprises, which have developed novel processing techniques and created new marketing chains. </p> Fri, 06 Mar 2015 18:24:36 +0100 Improving plantain banana digestibility <p> Plantain bananas are a staple food for many people in Africa and Latin America. They are eaten cooked, and when ripe, they are rich in starch, their main unavailable carbohydrate macromolecule. A team from CIRAD is looking into the technological properties of these bananas, which determine their processability and uses, with a view to optimizing their quality, particularly nutritional, once cooked. <br />Starch digestibility, flesh texture and the evolution of nutritional quality are all elements that have been studied by researchers. The results of this study will be used to create new varieties with a view to guaranteeing their adoption by consumers. </p> Mon, 02 Mar 2015 17:20:18 +0100 The four winners of the Climate ‪Challenge competition on the CIRAD-AFD stand at the Paris International Agricultural Show <p> The AFD and CIRAD launched the first international “Climate Challenge Agriculture and Forestry” competition, which promotes agricultural and forestry innovation to address climate change. Out of 550 submissions, 12 winning projects were chosen in four categories. The final jury, headed by Brice Lalonde, selected the four most innovative projects in each category. </p> Fri, 27 Feb 2015 11:36:30 +0100 Changement climatique et agricultures du monde <p> A collective work on current research into the issues of concern for farming and farmers in couthern countries in the wake of climate change. There is much uncertainty and also many questions, but there are some solutions, as diverse as new farming practices, agricultural waste recycling, diagnosis of emerging diseases and payments for ecosystem services. These are innovative prospects for the farming systems of the future, supplemented by a critical look at alll the major &quot;manoeuvres&quot; under way and what this means for research. </p> Tue, 17 Feb 2015 12:28:51 +0100 SIA 2015: daily debates on the topic of agriculture and climate <p> Listen to the discussions and round tables, led by researchers from CIRAD and AFD on the theme of agriculture and climate change. These roundtables were organized as part of the Paris International Agricultural Show in Paris from 21 February to 1 March 2015. </p> Tue, 17 Feb 2015 12:27:19 +0100 Albicidin, an antibiotic of the future? <p class="MsoNormal"> A team from CIRAD, in collaboration with the Technical University of Berlin, recently characterized the structure of albicidin, an antibiotic produced by bacterial pathogen of sugarcane. This powerful antibiotic has been shown to be active against difficult-to-treat bacteria, and even those responsible for hospital-acquired infections. Its structure and mode of action make it a novel, highly promising molecule. </p> Wed, 11 Feb 2015 15:47:00 +0100 CIRAD and INRA federate their international relations <p class="MsoNormal"> On 6 February 2015, François Houllier, President of INRA, and Michel Eddi, CIRAD President Managing Director, signed an agreement creating a joint support unit for International Relations (UMA-RI). This novel structure will federate both institutes’ international cooperation actions </p> Mon, 09 Feb 2015 11:29:46 +0100 Un parcours dans les mondes de la recherche agronomique. L'Inra et le Cirad <p> This issue of <em>Histoire de la recherche contemporaine</em> contains the first part of a report on the respective histories of CIRAD and INRA, and more particularly the role of these two organizations in relations between science and society. It was produced by the joint INRA-CIRAD History Committee, and sets out to recount and explain the history of these two leading global agricultural research players. The articles on offer look from various standpoints at how this targeted research has changed. </p> Fri, 06 Feb 2015 14:36:11 +0100 Perspective No. 31. Urban agriculture support policies in West Africa. Taking account of informal arrangements <p> This new issue of Perspective highlights the informal arrangements between crop farmers, livestock farmers, agro-industry and the authorities that sustain urban agriculture in Africa. It argues in favour of taking account of such arrangements in the support policies from which this type of agriculture benefits and in town planning schemes. Urban agriculture has developed significantly in Africa since independence and the exodus towards towns. Moreover, over the past twenty years or so, many international organizations and programmes have stressed the many advantages of urban agriculture in developing countries: it creates jobs and thus income, it produces food, and it improves the environment and living conditions. </p> Wed, 04 Feb 2015 17:04:34 +0100