CIRAD - Actualités / News http://www.cirad.fr/en/rss/cirad-actualites-news eng-GB Sur le web : L’herbier du Vanuatu http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/ca-vient-de-sortir/sur-le-web-l-herbier-du-vanuatu http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/ca-vient-de-sortir/sur-le-web-l-herbier-du-vanuatu <p> 9000 spécimens de près de 1000 espèces, 700 photos descriptives, des cartes… Découvrez la diversité végétale de l’archipel du Vanuatu sur le site internet de l’herbier du Vanuatu. </p> Tue, 21 Oct 2014 12:18:29 +0200 La légitimation des savoirs, pierre angulaire de la recherche participative http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/legitimation-des-savoirs-et-recherche-participative http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/legitimation-des-savoirs-et-recherche-participative <p> Les démarches participatives ont aujourd’hui le vent en poupe. Mais quand celles-ci intègrent la recherche, l’évidence n’est pas toujours de mise, notamment lorsque des savoirs d’origines multiples sont en jeu. Dans le cadre d’une étude consacrée à la recherche participative, une anthropologue et une spécialiste des sciences de l’information et de la communication ont observé les processus de légitimation des savoirs au sein d’un projet mené au Sénégal. </p> <p> Comment légitimer les savoirs scientifiques ? Dans le contexte de ce projet, ce sont deux acteurs locaux, un leader associatif et un marabout qui y ont contribué. Ce dernier a, par exemple, traduit les enjeux du projet en se référant publiquement à des sourates du coran. Mais la légitimation doit aussi opérer pour les savoirs locaux, du point de vue des scientifiques. Là encore, des techniques originales ont été développées. L’utilisation de la photo par les différents acteurs, couplée à des enquêtes a permis de révéler et d’expliciter les regards de chacun. </p> <p> L’étude montre également que le processus de légitimation conduit à une évolution des positions sociales des acteurs : le leader paysan se présente désormais comme un «microbiologiste paysan», le marabout a renforcé ses savoirs religieux au travers de sa traduction des savoirs scientifiques. Enfin, du point de vue des chercheurs, deux conceptions opposées de la recherche sont clairement à distinguer : une production scientifique internationale de pointe dans un contexte très compétitif et le développement d’une science participative, sensible à la pertinence et aux enjeux sociaux. </p> Fri, 17 Oct 2014 15:32:00 +0200 Le Cirad au Salon du chocolat http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/press-releases/salon-du-chocolat http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/press-releases/salon-du-chocolat <p> Le Cirad participe à la vingtième édition du Salon du chocolat sous la bannière « A la recherche des cacaos du futur » -du 29 octobre au 2 novembre 2014 à Paris (Hall 5, Stand E22, Porte de Versailles). </p> Mon, 13 Oct 2014 11:54:29 +0200 Biodiversity and ecosystem services make good bedfellows http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/biodiversity-and-ecosystem-services-make-good-bedfellows http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/biodiversity-and-ecosystem-services-make-good-bedfellows <p class="MsoNormal"> Zones identified as biodiversity hotspots can also be of use for other ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration, water conservation and landscape quality. This is not necessarily the case for zones with large amounts of carbon, which have fewer advantages in terms of other ecosystem services. These were the conclusions drawn from a study in Costa Rica by a team from CIRAD, CIFOR and CATIE. The results could have repercussions for the choice of zones to be protected under initiatives aimed at mitigating emissions caused by deforestation, such as REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation). </p> Fri, 10 Oct 2014 18:08:25 +0200 Quand la lutte biologique modifie le régime alimentaire des prédateurs http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/quand-la-lutte-biologique-modifie-le-regime-alimentaire-des-predateurs http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/quand-la-lutte-biologique-modifie-le-regime-alimentaire-des-predateurs <p> Les plantes de couverture peuvent favoriser la régulation naturelle des ravageurs en permettant aux populations de prédateurs d’augmenter. Mais elles peuvent aussi modifier considérablement le régime alimentaire de ces prédateurs. Une équipe du Cirad vient d’en apporter la preuve en identifiant, grâce à la technique du métabarcoding ADN, les proies ingérées par les prédateurs du charançon du bananier dans les plantations de la Martinique. Une première dans l’utilisation in situ de cette technique d’analyse de l’ADN. </p> <p> </p> Wed, 08 Oct 2014 12:38:53 +0200 Le Cirad fête la science http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/press-releases/2014/fete-de-la-science http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/press-releases/2014/fete-de-la-science <p> Les scientifiques sont sur le pont pour la Fête de la science que ce soit en métropole ou en Outre-mer (à des dates différées). </p> Mon, 06 Oct 2014 15:30:55 +0200 The tilapia has been sequenced http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/press-releases/2014/tilapia-sequencing http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/press-releases/2014/tilapia-sequencing <p> The genomes of five species of cichlids, which include tilapia, were recently sequenced and compared by the <a href="http://cichlid.umd.edu/CGCindex.html" target="_self">CGC (Cichlid Genome Consortium</a>), of which CIRAD is a member. </p> <p> </p> <p class="MsoNormal"> The results were published in the 18 September issue of the journal <em>Nature</em> . </p> Mon, 29 Sep 2014 12:23:33 +0200 A new global network to measure the resilience of managed forests http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/global-network-for-the-resilience-of-managed-forests http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/global-network-for-the-resilience-of-managed-forests <p> Illegal logging, deforestation, biodiversity losses, etc, etc; logged forests often have a bad press. However, the concept of rational logging is now making headway. A global network of institutions – the Tropical managed Forests Observatory – is looking for the first time, on a regional and pan-tropical scale, at the resilience of these forests after selective logging. Its work concerns three main forest regions: the Amazon, Congo Basin, and Southeast Asia. The project is coordinated by CIRAD and funded by the CGIAR Forest Tree and Agroforestry programme, which involves twenty research organizations. </p> Fri, 26 Sep 2014 16:21:34 +0200 CIRAD joins the Global Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/institutionnel/cirad-joins-the-global-alliance-for-climate-smart-agriculture-gacsa http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/institutionnel/cirad-joins-the-global-alliance-for-climate-smart-agriculture-gacsa <p> The Global Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture was launched on 23 September, during the Global Climate Summit organized by the UN in New York under the aegis of Ban Ki-Moon. Following France's example, CIRAD President Michel Eddi, was in New York to sign the organization up to the Alliance. </p> Fri, 26 Sep 2014 14:06:43 +0200 Climate change and agriculture http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/ca-vient-de-sortir/climate-change-and-agriculture http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/ca-vient-de-sortir/climate-change-and-agriculture <p> To mark the Global Climate Summit organized in New York from 23 to 25 September 2014 by the UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-moon, CIRAD has compiled a report entitled &quot;Climate change and agriculture&quot;. </p> Mon, 22 Sep 2014 17:10:58 +0200 Coffee: smaller collections to help address future challenges http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/coffee-core-collections http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/coffee-core-collections <p> Small-scale genetic resource collections, which are easier to manage and maintain than the vast collections currently held by research centres worldwide. This is what researchers from CIRAD and their partners recently built for the coffee species <em>Coffea canephora,</em> which produces Robusta coffee. These core collections are valuable tools for breeders. Within a small number of accessions, they cover the same genetic information as the huge current field collections. They should make it possible to address the new issues now facing coffee producers, be they related to pests and diseases or to climate change. </p> <p> </p> Mon, 22 Sep 2014 15:30:13 +0200 AGROnews Antilles-Guyane No. 4 http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/ca-vient-de-sortir/agronews-antilles-guyane-no.-4 http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/ca-vient-de-sortir/agronews-antilles-guyane-no.-4 <p> A new issue of AGROnews Antilles-Caraïbe (West Indies-French Guiana), with a report on the &quot;pesticide&quot; risk, notably the case of chlordecone in the West Indies. </p> Wed, 17 Sep 2014 16:55:06 +0200 Sticky or firm? A model to predict cooked rice texture http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/sticky-or-firm-a-model-to-predict-cooked-rice-texture http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/sticky-or-firm-a-model-to-predict-cooked-rice-texture <p class="MsoNormal"> When cooked in little water, depending on the chosen cooking time and temperature, rice develops specific stickiness and firmness characteristics. Based on this observation, a team from CIRAD designed a mathematical model that describes the water transfer, swelling and starch gelatinization that occur in rice grains during cooking. The eventual aim is to design innovative rice cookers that could offer cooking programmes tailored to the more or less firm or sticky texture sought by different consumer groups. </p> Fri, 12 Sep 2014 16:17:53 +0200 FAO symposium: international experts take stock of agroecology http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/press-releases/2014/agroecology http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/press-releases/2014/agroecology <p> On the joint initiative of the FAO and the French Ministry of Agriculture, the FAO and its partners, including CIRAD and INRA, are organizing an <strong>International Symposium on AgroEcology for Food Security and Nutrition</strong> in Rome (Italy) on 18 and 19 September<strong>.</strong> </p> Wed, 10 Sep 2014 10:22:38 +0200 Launch of Climate Challenge, an international competition on agricultural innovation to address climate change http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/press-releases/2014/climate-challenge-competition-on-agricultural-innovation-to-address-climate-change http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/press-releases/2014/climate-challenge-competition-on-agricultural-innovation-to-address-climate-change <p> Agence Française de Développement (AFD) and the Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD) have launched the first international competition “Climate Challenge Agriculture and Forestry”, which promotes agricultural and forestry innovation to address climate change. Anne Paugam, Chief Executive Officer of AFD, and Michel Eddi, Chairman of CIRAD presented this competition on 9 September 2014 during the 7th edition of the Convergences World Forum, which gathers public, private and solidarity-based actors who are working to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. </p> Tue, 09 Sep 2014 16:59:51 +0200 Large trees, a key element in Amazon rainforest dynamics http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/large-trees-and-the-sustainability-of-the-amzon-rainforest http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/large-trees-and-the-sustainability-of-the-amzon-rainforest <p> Large trees play a vital role in the carbon balance of logged forests. This was the conclusion drawn by a study in the Brazilian Amazon by CIRAD and EMBRAPA. By sparing large trees, reducing logging intensity and being paid compensation for doing so, logging firms can greatly improve their sustainability. An additional benefit is the improved functioning of the whole forest ecosystem, for which these trees are of major ecological value. </p> Mon, 08 Sep 2014 10:23:20 +0200 Le Cirad rejoint le club des opérateurs de l’État au service du développement durable http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/institutionnel/le-cirad-signe-la-charte-du-developpement-durable http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/institutionnel/le-cirad-signe-la-charte-du-developpement-durable <p> Le Cirad vient de signer la Charte du développement durable des établissements publics et entreprises publiques. A l’instar de l’Inra et de l’IRD notamment, il affirme son engagement en faveur du développement durable et entre ainsi dans le club des 61 établissements membres. </p> Thu, 04 Sep 2014 17:14:36 +0200 The coffee genome has been sequenced http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/press-releases/2014/coffee-genome http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/press-releases/2014/coffee-genome <p> An international study coordinated by researchers from the CEA (Genoscope), CIRAD, the CNRS, the IRD and the University of Buffalo (USA), involving many laboratories, has identified for the first time a reference for coffee. The results are published in the 5 September 2014 issue of the journal <em>Science</em> . </p> Thu, 04 Sep 2014 10:52:07 +0200 The genetic history of citrus fruits: a precious tool for creating new varieties http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/genetic-history-of-citrus-fruits http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/genetic-history-of-citrus-fruits <p> Reconstituting the history of cultivated citrus varieties through genomics was the ambitious aim of a project conducted by an international consortium involving CIRAD. The results, published in <em>Nature Biotechnology</em> , are decisive for the breeding of new varieties that are both disease-resistant and adapted to climate change. </p> Wed, 03 Sep 2014 16:17:35 +0200 Fertilization: is phosphorus from organic waste as effective as inorganic fertilizers? http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/efficacy-of-fertilizing-with-phosphorus-from-organic-waste http://www.cirad.fr/news/all-news-items/articles/2014/science/efficacy-of-fertilizing-with-phosphorus-from-organic-waste <p> With the global exhaustion of phosphorus resources, organic waste of animal, urban or agroindustrial origin are now a veritable mine of crop fertilizers for the future. CIRAD recently launched a comparative study in Réunion of the phosphorus fertilizer value of various types of organic waste suitable for applications on tropical soils. </p> Fri, 29 Aug 2014 16:09:40 +0200