CIRAD - Actualités / News - adresse site = - Langue = eng-GB eng-GB Les transformations des politiques de coopération <p> Cet ouvrage présente, selon une approche pluridisciplinaire, les profondes transformations politiques de coopération au développement des États dits du Nord. Il explicite en particulier les processus complexes régissant les politiques de coopération, prenant en compte les multiples niveaux (multilatéral, bilatéral, local) et les jeux d’acteurs aux comportements et intérêts divergents. </p> Wed, 04 May 2016 16:11:04 +0200 Recyclage des déchets organiques: comment limiter les risques d’écotoxicité pour les sols <p> Des chercheurs du Cirad et leurs partenaires ont testé la toxicité de certains déchets organiques sur les sols de la région de Dakar, où le maraîchage est particulièrement développé. Leurs résultats montrent que l’application de ces déchets organiques augmente la disponibilité de certains éléments traces métalliques - zinc, cuivre, plomb… - dans les sols concernés. Afin de minimiser les risques d’écotoxicité, les chercheurs recommandent de diversifier les types de déchets appliqués aux sols et d’en modérer la quantité. </p> Wed, 04 May 2016 15:57:33 +0200 Tatajuba, a Guianan wood that could compete with teak… <p class="MsoNormal"> Tatajuba is a durable, relatively dense wood that is also highly stable in use, in other words largely insensitive to variations in relative humidity. It draws that stability from metabolites produced when the sapwood* is converted into heartwood. This was recently demonstrated by researchers from the CNRS and CIRAD, who published their results in <em>PloS One</em> . </p> Fri, 29 Apr 2016 10:25:14 +0200 Voies lactées, version e-book <p class="MsoNormal"> After the paperback version, here is the e-book version of Voies lactées: dynamique des bassins laitiers entre globalisation et territorialisation. The book uses a trip through the world's dairy basins to illustrate the changes in livestock farming systems. </p> Thu, 28 Apr 2016 16:59:32 +0200 40 years of innovations that have revolutionized banana growing <p class="MsoNormal"> A four-page illustrated document recounts the main innovations developed by CIRAD that have transformed the way bananas are produced in the French West Indies. </p> Wed, 27 Apr 2016 14:35:51 +0200 Cassava: reconquering diversity <p> <strong>An international team has compared the cassava genome with that of its closest relatives. This work, which involved CIRAD, has lifted the veil on the history and genetic diversity of a plant that currently feeds 800 million people. It paves the way for work to improve yields via the development of more productive or disease-resistant varieties. </strong> </p> Fri, 22 Apr 2016 15:01:22 +0200 Alain Karsenty: "No, forest management plans do not exacerbate deforestation" <p class="MsoNormal"> <strong>Forest management plans are seen as the main tools for managing the forest resource sustainably. However, </strong> <a href="" target="_self" rel="self" rev="width:100_height:100"><strong>an article published in early 2016</strong> </a><strong> concluded that in Congo, deforestation was worse in forestry concessions with</strong> <strong>forest management plans</strong> <strong>than in those without. These results were a real bombshell, but may in fact just be a damp squib: they have since been contradicted by </strong> <a href="" target="_self" rel="self" rev="width:100_height:100"><strong>a working document signed by 22 international researchers</strong> </a><strong>. </strong> </p> <p class="MsoNormal"> <strong>Some explanations from Alain Karsenty, an economist at CIRAD specializing in tropical forests and lead author of the document.</strong> </p> Fri, 15 Apr 2016 19:04:45 +0200 CIRAD officializes its links with CENSA in Cuba <p> CIRAD and CENSA, in Cuba, recently signed a cooperation agreement. The agreement officializes the existing links between the two organizations. It strengthens relations with Cuba in the field of agricultural science cooperation, complementing an initial general agreement signed in March 2015 with the Cuban Ministry of Agriculture. </p> Mon, 11 Apr 2016 17:17:48 +0200 Ethics | Sharing and management of research data <p> The INRA-CIRAD Joint Consultative Committee on Ethics recently turned its attention to the burning issue of data sharing and management. Data gathering is an essential aspect of scientists' work, and the ever greater transparency surrounding research results means that a flood of information is now available on the Internet. What are the constraints and responsibilities involved in data sharing? How can researchers be supported in this context? In particular, the Ethics Committee recommends setting up a body on this topic that scientists from the two organizations could consult, and drafting a specific policy. </p> Mon, 11 Apr 2016 17:15:23 +0200 Jean-Philippe Deguine: "Réunion is an advanced laboratory for agro-ecology in France" <p> In Réunion, mangoes can now be grown entirely without insecticides and chayotes are now organic! Interview with Jean-Philippe Deguine, the CIRAD researcher behind two projects on agro-ecological crop protection, Biophyto and Gamour, which helped achieve these results. The French Minister of Agriculture invited him to present them in Paris, at a symposium to draft a plan for the future of agriculture (<em>loi d'avenir pour l’agriculture</em> ). </p> Fri, 08 Apr 2016 12:12:15 +0200 Bois et forêts des tropiques No. 326 <p> A new issue of the journal <em>Bois et forêts des Tropiques,</em> published by CIRAD, including an editorial on scientific integrity. All items are free to access on <a href="" target="_self" rel="self" rev="width:100_height:100">the website of the magazine</a>. </p> Tue, 05 Apr 2016 16:02:15 +0200 Territorial ecology: a way of renewing the objects of agricultural research <p> In a context in which various types and scales of new expectations and new standards and requirements for farming and agrifood systems are emerging, agricultural research is looking at whether it needs to renew the subjects and scales on which it works and its approaches: what should it be assessing and how? What are &quot;the performances&quot; of the target systems to be improved? What systems are we talking about? </p> <p> Depending on the topic concerned, renewing the objects of agricultural research may mean defining the limitations of systems well beyond those of agriculture and agrifoods. </p> <p> In looking at material relations in situations opened up to other industrial sectors and to the urban context, agricultural research has to position itself in relation to other integrated research fields. A study of organic waste recycling led him to identify industrial ecology, more commonly referred to in French as territorial ecology, as an appropriate research framework. </p> Thu, 31 Mar 2016 16:32:36 +0200 When CIRAD statistical expertise is at the service of the conservation of gorillas <p> Recent work involving researchers from CIRAD revealed that the Grauer's gorilla (also known as the eastern lowland gorilla), one of the four known sub-species of gorilla, is in critical danger of extinction. The sub-species, which lives in the forests of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, has seen its numbers fall by almost 80% in the past twenty years, and is one of the collateral victims of the country's civil war. </p> Wed, 30 Mar 2016 12:16:15 +0200 Tailoring climate forecasts to the range of contexts <p> Why do farmers in tropical countries make very little use of the climate forecasts supplied to them, particularly seasonal rainfall forecasts? A research group of which CIRAD is a member decided to tackle this question by means of a survey. The scientists involved pinpointed the large gaps between the information supplied and farmers' requirements. Using a comparative approach, they showed that the variety of agricultural, ethnographic and geographical situations meant tailoring climate data to the specific requirements of the farmers. </p> Wed, 16 Mar 2016 15:33:01 +0100 A renewed partnership with Ivory Coast <p> CIRAD signed a general cooperation agreement with the Ivorian Ministry of Agriculture on 2 March 2016, renewing its partnership on agricultural research, appraisals and training. In particular, the agreement covers the topics of food safety and cocoa diseases. It follows on from those signed with the CNRA in 2014 and FIRCA in 2015 and confirms the resumption of operations in partnership between CIRAD and Ivory Coast. </p> Fri, 11 Mar 2016 16:43:46 +0100 Women in Africa: their key role in food security <p> Women play a key role in food security in certain parts of Africa. Cereal production in the western regions of Burkina Faso outstrips the energy requirements of the local population, yet a third of the children in those regions suffer from delayed growth, a sign of chronic malnutrition that is at least partly linked to an unbalanced diet. The economist Alissia Lourme Ruiz has demonstrated that in those regions, within farming households, dietary diversity primarily dépends on whether women are economically and financially independent, rather than on the level of cereal production. A few explanations, in pictures, to mark International Women's Day, 8 March 2016. </p> Tue, 08 Mar 2016 10:27:29 +0100 Protection agroécologique des cultures <p> This book, on agro-ecological crop protection, begins with a presentation of the principles of agro-ecology and their application to crop protection, and goes on to analyse several full-scale participatory trials conducted in a range of contexts. It makes concrete recommendations for the entire range of temperate and tropical cropping systems, which are keys to this highly desirable agro-ecological transition. </p> Sat, 27 Feb 2016 17:36:04 +0100 Presentation of the MOOC on "The basics of the epidemiology of animal diseases" <p> The first MOOC entirely produced by CIRAD, on &quot;The basics of the epidemiology of animal diseases&quot; will be presented on 1 March 2016 at the Paris International Agricultural Show. Registration will be open soon. The course proper will begin on 10 October. </p> <p> </p> Wed, 24 Feb 2016 17:31:02 +0100 Sustainable development means radical changes in tropical supply chains <p class="MsoNormal"> Behind the many tropical products we consume, there are agricultural supply chains involving a multitude of players. Farmers, industrialists, transporters, researchers, bankers and civil servants are all working to grow, harvest, store, process, transport and sell products. </p> Tue, 23 Feb 2016 10:21:01 +0100 Rubber: a core collection that covers all the genetic diversity of the species <p> Researchers from CIRAD and their Brazilian colleagues recently characterized more than 1000 <em>Hevea</em> accessions held in Brazil and French Guiana, using molecular markers. This enabled them to compile a core collection of around a hundred trees, which encompasses the entirety of the genetic diversity described with the markers used and will facilitate the conservation of rubber genetic resources. That conservation is vital at a time when deforestation is resulting in unprecedented impoverishment of those resources in Amazonia. </p> <p> </p> Fri, 19 Feb 2016 15:13:49 +0100