CIRAD - Actualités / News - adresse site = - Langue = eng-GB eng-GB Climate change - Estimating carbon emissions for REDD+: The conditions for involving local people <p> The participation of local people in climate change mitigation is considered key to ensuring that their priorities are taken into account. This should help to design effective social safeguards and to improve equity in benefit sharing. The participation of local people has been explored in carbon emission Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) for REDD+. This issue of Perspective shows the the feasibility and sustainability of participatory MRV (PMRV) are not automatic and depend on its relevance to local people (including incentives to participate), their technical capacity and the existence of appropriate structures for measurement, reporting and verification. </p> Fri, 28 Nov 2014 17:30:56 +0100 Le renouveau des systèmes d’information sur les marchés agricoles dans les pays en développement <p> La revue <em>Cahiers Agricultures</em> publie un numéro bilingue consacré aux systèmes d'information sur les marchés agricoles (SIM) de dernière génération, dans les pays en développement. </p> Thu, 27 Nov 2014 15:44:31 +0100 L’élevage, un facteur d’adaptation au changement global en Egypte <p> Le bassin méditerranéen est confronté à des changements sociaux et environnementaux sans précédent qui fragilisent ses territoires. De 1995 à 2010, la côte nord-ouest de l’Egypte a notamment connu une période de sécheresse d’une ampleur sans précédent. L’élevage y a toujours été un élément structurant de l’espace et de l’économie des ménages. Face à la contrainte climatique mais aussi au développement du tourisme et à l'aménagement des oueds, les Bédouins se sont adaptés. L'organisation sociale tribale a joué un rôle central dans l'accès aux ressources et leur usage, mais aussi dans l'adaptation des familles. Ils ont développé de nouvelles activités tout en conservant l'élevage comme l'élément central de leur société. </p> Wed, 26 Nov 2014 11:02:21 +0100 Estado del arte de la quinoa en el mundo en 2013 <p> Cet Etat de l’art sur le quinoa réunit une collection de synthèses pour aider à comprendre les multiples facettes de cette culture. L’ouvrage montre notamment pourquoi la biodiversité de cette plante est importante pour l’expansion de sa culture sous toutes les latitudes. Il nous oblige à repenser nos modèles d’innovation variétale pour assurer sa conservation. </p> Wed, 26 Nov 2014 10:22:14 +0100 Avian influenza is showing the strains! <p class="MsoNormal"> Type H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza foci have recently been observed on poultry farms in the UK, Germany and the Netherlands. This strain has already been seen in China and Japan, but there have not yet been any cases of transmission to humans. As for strains H5N1, H7N9 and now H5N6, they are continuing to circulate in Asia, and could be a threat to countries in the North. </p> <p> </p> <p class="MsoNormal"> </p> Wed, 19 Nov 2014 11:12:17 +0100 Les transformations dans le système de la coopération pour le développement <p> Development cooperation is a field that has traditionally been analysed by economists, who prefer questions regarding the efficiency, performance or selectivity of aid. The journal <em>Mondes en Développement</em> has published a series of articles, directed by researchers from CIRAD and UQAM, detailing a range of new disciplinary approaches and shedding new light on recent developments in this field. </p> Mon, 17 Nov 2014 16:43:23 +0100 4th SOCSEM, or how to assess the social effects of value chains <p> From 19 to 21 November 2014, CIRAD, IRSTEA and SYKE will be hosting the 4th SocSem, the International Social Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Seminar, in Montpellier. The emphasis will be on recent developments as regards social LCA approaches. </p> Thu, 06 Nov 2014 14:53:42 +0100 Promoting the use of the biodiversity in the Andean Amazon. Leveraging the climate negotiations <p> This issue of <em>Perspective</em> describes how, in the Andean Amazon, forest communities use biodiversity without depleting natural resources and promote it within local organisations and value chains. This has three key benefits: preserving biodiversity, mitigating climate change and creating favourable conditions for adaptation to this change. In this capacity, the communities should be eligible for funding granted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, in order to strengthen these local organisations and value chains, which remain fragile. </p> Wed, 05 Nov 2014 16:00:18 +0100 Florendoviruses, a new viral genus discovered in flowering plants <p> An international team of scientists has discovered a new viral genus of which parts of the genome have been captured and maintained in the DNA of flowering plants as molecular fossils. The genus has been named “<em>Florendovirus</em> ” after the Roman goddess of flowers, and is estimated to have existed for more than 20 million years and to have remained active at least until 6000 years ago. Florendoviruses are genuine fossil viruses, and shed light on viral evolution processes. This result was published recently in the international scientific journal <em>Nature Communications</em> . </p> Tue, 04 Nov 2014 15:30:01 +0100 AFTER 2014 Congress: promoting market access for traditional African products <p> The first congress on the AFTER project (African Food Tradition rEvisited by Research) is to be held in Dakar (Senegal) on 11 and 12 November 2014, on the topic &quot;Promoting traditional African foods: innovations, quality and market access&quot;. </p> Mon, 27 Oct 2014 14:50:00 +0100 Palms of controversies - Oil palm and development challenges <p> The book <em>La palme des controverses, </em> originally published in French, is now available in English under the title <em>Palms of controversies</em> and can be downloaded free of charge. It describes the entire palm oil production and processing sector, from the oil palm crop to the use of palm or palm kernel oil in common products. The book intends to provide global, balanced information on a highly-controversial topic in the media and the perception of the general public. </p> Thu, 23 Oct 2014 17:19:46 +0200 Strategic Approaches to Information <p> After the English version, the IMARK e-learning course on strategic approaches to information is now also available in French. </p> Thu, 23 Oct 2014 16:22:08 +0200 Políticas públicas y agriculturas familiares en América Latina y el Caribe : balance, desafíos y perspectivas <p> The book <em>Políticas públicas y agriculturas familiares en América Latina y el Caribe : balance, desafíos y perspectivas</em> presents the diversity of family farms in Latin America and of public policies relating to the sector. It is a compilation of the results of a study by CIRAD and twenty Latin American partners, and is one of the bases for the debates being organized as part of an international seminar, <em>Politicas publicas y agricultura familiar en América Latine y el Caribe, </em> to be held from 2 to 5 November 2014 in Santiago, Chile. </p> Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:05:41 +0200 Promoting family farming in Latin America <p> From 2 to 5 November 2014 in Santiago, Chile, family farming in Latin America will be the focus of attention on thepart of decision-makers and public policy specialists. As part of the International Year of Family Farming, CIRAD, ECLAC, the FAO, IFAD, the Chilean Ministry of Agriculture and the IICA are organizing an international seminar, <em>Políticas públicas y agricultura familiar en América Latina y el Caribe.</em> </p> Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:58:12 +0200 On the web: the Vanuatu herbarium <p> 9000 spécimens de près de 1000 espèces, 700 photos descriptives, des cartes… Découvrez la diversité végétale de l’archipel du Vanuatu sur le site internet de l’herbier du Vanuatu. </p> Tue, 21 Oct 2014 12:18:29 +0200 Knowledge legitimization, the keystone of participatory research <p> Participatory approaches are currently fashionable. However, if they involve research, things are not always self-evident, particularly if knowledge of many origins is at stake. In a study of participatory research, an anthropologist and a specialist in information and communication sciences looked at the ways in which knowledge was legitimized within a project in Senegal. </p> <p> How can scientific knowledge be legitimized? Within this project, two local players, a farmers' association leader and a marabout, were involved. The marabout, for instance, translated the issues at stake by making public reference to surahs from the Koran. However, legitimization must also apply to local knowledge, from the point of view of scientists. In this case too, novel techniques were developed. The use of photos by the various players, combined with surveys, served to reveal and set out the viewpoints of each stakeholder. </p> <p> The study also showed that the legitimization process led to a change in the stakeholders' social status: the smallholders' leader now describes himself as a &quot;peasant microbiologist&quot;, while the marabout boosted his religious knowledge by translating the scientific knowledge. Lastly, from the researchers' point of view, a clear distinction can be made between two concepts of research: international production of advanced science within a highly competitive context, and the development of participatory science concerned with relevance and social issues. </p> Fri, 17 Oct 2014 15:32:00 +0200 CIRAD at the Salon du chocolat <p> CIRAD is participating in the twentieth <em>Salon du chocolat</em> under the banner of &quot;Looking for the cocoas of the future&quot;, from 20 October to 2 November 2014 in Paris (Porte de Versailles exhibition centre, Hall 5, Stand E22). </p> Mon, 13 Oct 2014 11:54:29 +0200 Biodiversity and ecosystem services make good bedfellows <p class="MsoNormal"> Zones identified as biodiversity hotspots can also be of use for other ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration, water conservation and landscape quality. This is not necessarily the case for zones with large amounts of carbon, which have fewer advantages in terms of other ecosystem services. These were the conclusions drawn from a study in Costa Rica by a team from CIRAD, CIFOR and CATIE. The results could have repercussions for the choice of zones to be protected under initiatives aimed at mitigating emissions caused by deforestation, such as REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation). </p> Fri, 10 Oct 2014 18:08:25 +0200 When biological control changes the diet of predators <p> Cover crops can foster natural pest regulation by enabling predator populations to thrive. However, they can also significantly modify the diet of those predators. A team from CIRAD recently proved this by identifying the prey eaten by banana weevil predators in plantations in Martinique, using the DNA metabarcoding technique. This was a first in terms of the use of this DNA analysis technique in situ. </p> <p> </p> Wed, 08 Oct 2014 12:38:53 +0200 Le Cirad fête la science <p> Les scientifiques sont sur le pont pour la Fête de la science que ce soit en métropole ou en Outre-mer (à des dates différées). </p> Mon, 06 Oct 2014 15:30:55 +0200